Download Surfactant Science and Technology: Retrospects and Prospects by Laurence S. Romsted PDF
By Laurence S. Romsted
Surfactant learn explores the forces liable for surfactant meeting and the severe commercial, scientific, and private purposes, together with viscosity keep watch over, microelectronics, drug stabilization, drug supply, cosmetics, superior oil restoration, and meals. Surfactant technology and know-how: Retrospects and Prospects, "a Festschrift in honor of Dr. Kash Mittal," offers a large point of view with chapters contributed by way of leaders within the fields of surfactant-based actual, natural, and fabrics chemistries. the various authors participated in a different symposium in Melbourne, Australia, honoring Kash Mittal’s a centesimal edited ebook on the 18th Surfactants in answer (SIS) assembly. each one bankruptcy offers an summary of a particular study region, with discussions on earlier, current, and destiny directions.
The e-book is split into six components. Part I studies the evolution of theoretical versions for surfactant self-assembly, and introduces a version for examining ion-specific results on mixture homes. Part II specializes in interactions of surfactant suggestions with reliable helps; makes use of touch angles to appreciate hydrophobic/hydrophilic alterations in a lipid layer; makes use of floor pressure to appreciate molecular preparations at interfaces; stories spreading phenomena; discusses trend formation on good surfaces; and applies tensiometry to probe style parts of espresso. Part III discusses novel DNA-based fabrics, multifunctional poly(amino acid)s–based graft polymers for drug supply, and polymeric surfactants for stabilizing suspensions and emulsions.
Part IV introduces farm-based biosurfactants from traditional items and "greener" biosurfactants from micro organism. Part V explores lyotropic liquid crystals and their functions in brought on drug liberate; microemulsion houses and regulated drug unlock; the function of hydrotopes in formulations and in bettering solubilization in liquid crystals; the potential for ionic drinks to generate tunable and selective response media; and offers an summary of stimuli-responsive surfactants. targeting emulsions, Part VI studies the layout of emulsion houses for numerous advertisement purposes, the function of surfactants within the oil and fuel industries, and surfactant mechanisms for soil elimination through microemulsions and emulsification.
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Extra info for Surfactant Science and Technology: Retrospects and Prospects
Micelles are partially ionized, therefore a theory must account for this. Micelles form with nonionizing detergents in water, and with some ionizing detergents in hydrocarbons (aerosol OT, diethyl hexyl sodium sulfosuccinate), showing that a charge is not essential for the phenomenon. A straightchain compound is not necessary for micelle formation. Sodium deoxycholate with a single ionizing group on a sterol skeleton forms micelles as well as divalent aerosol OT in hydrocarbons with four branched chains to one ionic group.
He argued that because the surfactant molecules approaching one end of a long rod would feel only the near end, the rod length should have no effect on the total energy. This would make the length of the rod to be infinite. Because this is not the case, he proposed that the finite size of the micelles can be explained by the analogy between rodlike micelles and a one-dimensional gas (molecules fixed on a string like beads). Just as a one-dimensional gas does not condense whatever may be the nature of interactions, the rodlike micelles remain finite and do not cause phase separation.
He obtained expressions for the increase in the micelle size and decrease in the cmc as a function of the added salt concentration. However, the validity of the Debye model was not questioned. Hobbs also estimated the electrostatic interactions between the two charged surfaces of the lamellar micelle. In the absence of any salt, he estimated that these interactions may account for 20% of the total electrostatic energy and could thus reduce the equilibrium micelle size and increase the cmc. Ooshika  and Reich  questioned some of the fundamental concepts underlying the Debye theory.