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Download Structure and Reactivity of Coal: A Survey of Selected by Ke-Chang Xie PDF

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By Ke-Chang Xie

This booklet offers insights into the improvement and utilization of coal in chemical engineering. The reactivity of coal in procedures reminiscent of pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction, combustion and swelling is expounded to its structural homes. utilizing experimental findings and theoretical research, the ebook comprehensively solutions 3 the most important matters which are basic to the optimization of coal chemical conversions: what's the constitution of coal? How does the underlying constitution ensure the reactivity of alternative sorts of coal? How does the constitution of coal adjust in the course of coal conversion? This ebook should be of curiosity to either person readers and associations concerned about instructing and study into chemical engineering and effort conversion applied sciences. it truly is geared toward complicated- point undergraduate scholars. The textual content is appropriate for readers with a simple wisdom of chemistry, reminiscent of first-year undergraduate basic technological know-how scholars. Higher-level scholars with an in-depth knowing of the chemistry of coal also will enjoy the booklet. it is going to supply an invaluable reference source for college kids and university-level academics, in addition to practising engineers.

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Extra info for Structure and Reactivity of Coal: A Survey of Selected Chinese Coals

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The mechanical strength of coal is related to factors such as the degree of coalification, lithotype, mineral content, and weathering. The mechanical strengths of high-rank and low-rank coals are greater than those of medium-rank fat coals and coking coal. In terms of the macroscopic lithotype of coal, the mechanical strength of fusain is lowest, followed by vitrain, and that of durain is the highest. The mechanical strengths of coals with high mineral contents are high, and are reduced by weathering.

45 Fine separation refers to the natural sedimentation or centrifugation of coal samples in organic density liquid. This step gives maceral samples of the required purity. The organic density liquid should have properties such as low viscosity, strong wetting ability, fast layering, and volatility, and should leave no residue after drying and have little effect on the coal properties. Generally, a mixture of benzene and carbon tetrachloride is used for separation. 5 Quantitative Analysis of Coal Macerals In maceral content determination using a microscope, the area percentages of the respective components, which are proportional to the volume percentages, and the component densities can be used to calculate the mass percentages.

Vitrinite and semivitrinite together usually account for about 80 % [4]. 6 Chemical Composition of Coal Macerals The proximate and ultimate analytical results for coal macerals show regular changes for different macerals and coalification degrees. 11. With increasing coalification, the volatile matter (Vdaf) and hydrogen (Hdaf) contents of vitrinite decrease, whereas the content of carbon (Cdaf) and carbon to hydrocarbon ratio (Cdaf/Hdaf) increase. Various macerals with the same or similar coalifications have significantly different analytical indicators such as Vdaf, Cdaf, Hdaf, and Cdaf/Hdaf.

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