Download Silicon VLSI technology: fundamentals, practice, and by James D. Plummer, Michael Deal, Peter D. Griffin PDF
By James D. Plummer, Michael Deal, Peter D. Griffin
For one-quarter/semester, senior/graduate point classes in Fabrication approaches. particular in procedure, this article presents an built-in view of silicon technology--with an emphasis on glossy machine simulation. It describes not just the producing perform linked to the applied sciences utilized in silicon chip fabrication, but additionally the underlying medical foundation for these applied sciences.
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Extra resources for Silicon VLSI technology: fundamentals, practice, and modeling
The phase detector compares the reference to the VCO’s output and produces a signal u 1 , which changes in proportion to the difference in their phases. This is processed by the loop filter to provide the oscillator control signal u 2 . The loop filter can be as simple as a conductor (u 2 = u 1 ) or a flat amplifier (u 2 = K LF u 1 ), but it is usually designed to provide some advantageous response characteristic. If the output frequency, ωout = dϕout /dt, should be greater than the reference frequency, ωin = dϕin /dt, then u 1 ∼ (ϕin − ϕout − ) would necessarily decrease with time, causing u 2 to decrease, which, in turn, would cause ωout to decrease, bringing ωout down toward ωin .
4 by the transfer function of the segment that connects them. 25) represents a low-pass characteristic with a cutoff (−3 dB) frequency of ω = K . This is analogous to the low-pass filter of Fig. 6a in which the voltages have been given names corresponding to the phases. 26) says that the error phase has a high-pass characteristic, analogous to Fig. 6b. It is generally true, even in more complex loops, that the output has a low-pass relationship to the input while the error has a high-pass relationship.
14) where ωc is the center, or carrier, frequency, A is the peak frequency deviation, and ωm is the modulation frequency. Putting Eq. 13), we obtain A ωm cos(ωm t) + ωc + A sin (ωm t) = ωin . 15) in terms of deviations from the mean: ωout ≡ ωout (t) − ωc = A sin (ωm t), ωm ωin ≡ ωin − ωc = A cos(ωm t) + A sin (ωm t). 18) so the magnitude of the frequency response is |H (ωm )| = 1/ ωm K 2 + 1. 19) Since ωin contains a component equal to ωout plus one that leads it by 90◦ and is larger by ωm /K , the phase angle of ωin relative to ωout is tan−1 [ωm /K ] and the transfer phase is H (ωm ) ≡ ϕout (ωm ) − ϕin (ωm ) = − tan−1 [ωm /K ].