Download Schaum's Outline of Optics by Eugene Hecht PDF
By Eugene Hecht
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Extra resources for Schaum's Outline of Optics
The domains, or areas of uniform polarization in paraelectric materials, as compared to those of ferroelectric materials, are unordered and have a weak internal electric field. 5 demonstrates the relationship between the electric displacement D and electric field E of an ideal paraelectric material. Pyroelectrics having no spontaneous polarization can be observed in Fig. 5; however, electric displacement is generated when an electric field is applied. In reality, a paraelectric material often exhibits a small spontaneous polarization and a hysteresis loop.
Y. Xu, Ferroelectric Materials and Applications, North-Holland, Amsterdam (1991). 11. M. E. Lines and A. M. Glass, Principles and Applications of Ferroelectrics and Related Materials, Clarendon, Oxford, United Kingdom, pp. 620–632 (1997). 12. M. H. Lee, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Pyroelectric sensors,” J. Electroceramics 2, 229–242 (1998). 13. J. R. S. Thesis, Alabama A & M University, Normal, Alabama (2004). 14. S. Bauer and B. Ploss, “Interference effects of thermal waves and their applications to bolometers and pyroelectric detectors,” Sensor and Actuator 25/27, 417–421 (1991).
TFLT™ fabrication process (adapted from Ref. 44). Depending on the application, a domain pattern can be formed in the wafer prior to the TFLT™ process. A full wafer-ion implant is performed to create a highly stressed implant layer at a depth determined by the implant energy. This depth defines the film thickness and is typically 5–10 mm. The implanted wafer is then temporarily bonded face down to a handle substrate for further processing. Either selective wet etching or a high-temperature step is used to separate or “slice” the seed wafer along the ion-implant plane, leaving a thin portion of the seed wafer still attached to the handle wafer.