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By Gamal Mostafa, Cathey Lamont, Frederick L. Greene
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This phase is useful for highlighting organs such as the liver. In the equilibrium phase, intravascular and extravascular contrasts exist in equilibrium. Computed tomography angiograms are created by accounting for the delivery time of the contrast material. The amount of vascular enhancement is determined by the concentration of contrast, the injection rate, and the patient’s cardiac output. Systemic images are obtained after a 30 to 40 second delay, whereas images of pulmonary vasculature are obtained after only an 8 to 10 second delay.
High-frequency ultrasound is unable to penetrate to deeper levels of tissue but has better resolution than low-frequency ultrasound. Low-frequency ultrasound has improved penetration but poor resolution. 5 MHz transducer. Three scanning modes are available for ultrasound: A, B, and M mode. The A mode is amplitude modulation and is the most basic mode of ultrasound. A-mode ultrasound creates one-dimensional images. The strength of the returning signal is plotted along the Y axis, and the time is plotted along the X axis.
The interface between the transducer probe and the skin’s surface produces a reﬂection of the ultrasonic waves. Matching material is applied to the probe and the skin’s surface to mediate the transmission of the ultrasound waves across this interface and to limit the reﬂection of ultrasound waves. The frequency of the transducer is indirectly proportional to the thickness of the piezoelectric crystal. 5 to 10 MHz. High-frequency ultrasound is unable to penetrate to deeper levels of tissue but has better resolution than low-frequency ultrasound.