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By Frederick Wooten
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4 Cost Considerations As mentioned in the beginning, although PON has been invented for over 20 years, it has not been commercially successful until recently. An access system connects end users to COs through local loops in two ways. The straightforward approach is to run a separate pair of wires (called home run) from each end user Organization of the Book 15 to the assigned CO. Alternatively, local loops first connect end users to a remote terminal (RT), which multiplexes the individual signals on a feeder line.
Efficient handling of Ethernet packets is therefore very important in next-generation networks. The first-generation Ethernet used MAC protocol called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) for local area networking . All the hosts are connected in a multipoint-to-multipoint (MP2MP) coaxial Ethernet speed (Mbps) 1,000,000 100,000 Terabit Ethernet? MMF,SMF WWDM 10,000 1,000 100 UTP, MMF Coaxial cable, UTP1 UTP, MMF, SMF 10 1 1985 1990 UTP: unshielded twisted pair SMF: single-mode fiber 1995 2000 Year 2005 2010 2015 MMF: multimode fiber WWDM: wide wavelength division multiplexing 1.
Chapter 4 focuses on the properties and characteristics of PON transceivers, which are quite different from those used with conventional two-fiber, continuous-mode optical transmission systems. Chapter 5 reviews the ranging process and dynamic bandwidth allocation protocols, which are essential to the operation and performance of powersplitting TDM PON systems. As the PON speed and service group size increases, reliability and availability becomes more and more important. Chapter 6 discusses protection switching and traffic restoration schemes for PON systems.