Download Optical Effects of Ion Implantation by P. D. Townsend PDF

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By P. D. Townsend

This ebook is the 1st to offer a close description of the criteria and approaches that govern the optical houses of ion implanted fabrics, in addition to an summary of the range of units that may be produced during this manner. starting with an summary of the elemental physics and useful tools serious about ion implantation, the subjects of optical absorption and luminescence are then mentioned. A bankruptcy on waveguide research then offers the heritage for an outline of specific optical units, reminiscent of waveguide lasers, mirrors, and novel nonlinear fabrics. The ebook concludes with a survey of the interesting diversity of capability purposes.

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Electronic energy loss is not only a simple case of inelastic energy loss, as the atomistic nature of the electronic energy loss processes indicate a strongly varying behaviour over the different species of projectile and target. In practice, the calculation of the electronic energy loss of an ion can be divided into two categories: one is for light ions, the other for heavy ions. A brief example of the stopping for light ions, such as He+, is given here. At low velocities (in the regime E ~ 1 MeV for He+) the electronic stopping power may be determined from the Lindhard-Scharff treatment (1961), which suggested that the electronic stopping power is proportional to velocity.

CI:! ++ "- "- "- ++ + ""- ...... 665 2 6 4 18 Dose (10 a decays/g) 0. ) '-' '0 "- '"CI:! "- ........ 660 10 Fig. 10. (a) Comparisons of properties of zircon during He irradiation. The properties monitored are lattice parameter (a, c), density (p), hardness (H), Young's modulus (E) and birefringence (~). (b) An expanded view of the comparison between He damage induced decrease in density (crosses) and expansion of lattice parameter (triangles) with ion dose. The estimated displacements per atom are included.

The first is to make the implantations at low temperature. This reduces the diffusion and hence the annealing of defects. Although the damage cascade is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, nor are bulk diffusion coefficients appropriate, cooling the samples does nevertheless inhibit loss of the defects. A second route is to select the orientation of the crystal relative to the incident ion beam, as diffusion coefficients for defects are sensitive to the crystallography. A third alternative is to use impurities which induce a relaxation of the lattice structure and, by producing distortions, stabilise defect structures.

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