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By Friedrich-Karl Holtmeier (auth.)
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Additional info for Mountain Timberlines: Ecology, Patchiness, and Dynamics
1995) - 2) Franklin and Dymess (1973) - 3) Daly (1984) - 4) Tranquillini (1979 a), Holtmeier (1994 b) - 5) elements (1936), Marr (1948) Marr and Marr (1973) - 6) Wardie (1973) _7) Amo (1984) _ 8) Rochefort et al. (1994), Miller and Halpern (1998) - 9) MacMahon and Andersen (1982) - 10) Löve (1970) - 11) Weisberg and Baker (1995) - 12) MacMahon and Andersen (1982) - 13) Marr (1967) _ 14) Schröter (1926), Holtmeier (1965, 1974), Mayer (1974), Tranquillini (1979 a), Ozenda (1988), Piussi and Schneider (1985) _ 15) Geiger (1901), Schröter (1926), Scharfetter (1938), Schmidt (1969), Troll (1973), Tranquillini (1979 a) _16) Strasburger et al.
Though precipitation increases from south to north in the western Bolivian cordillera, the upper limit of the Polylepis-stands climbs bigher in the north because of the greater mass-elevation of the northern mountain section (Kessler, 1995; Lauer and Rafiqpoor, 2000). The situation on the remote mountainous oceanic islands is even more difficult to assess. At first sight, the altitudinal position of the upper timberline seems to be related to the mountain-mass, as, for example, timberline is con- Mountain Timberlines 54 siderably higher on the large Hawaiian shield volcanoes than on any other oceanic islands.
Fagus sylvatica here and there fonn the upper timberline in the outer ranges ofthe southern and north-western European Alps, in the western Vosges (cf. , 1974), in the eastern Cantabrian Mountains, in the Apennines, in the Pontian Mountains and in the high mountains of Macedonia (Ern, 1970; Nikolovski, 1970~ Schreiber, 1998). In the western Caucasus, Fagus sylvestris is replaced by Fagus orientalis (Plesnik, 1972~ Grebenchikov, 1978~ Annand, 1992). Shrub-like Ainus species such as green alder (Ainus viridis) in the central Alps or Sitka alder (Ainus sitchensis = Ainus sinuata) in the northern Rocky Mountains (Photo 16, see also Photo 101 and Figure 35) may fonn dense thickets above the forest limit or in avalanche chutes.