Download Mark One or More: Civil Rights in Multiracial America (The by Kim M. Williams PDF
By Kim M. Williams
Mark a number of tells the little-known tale of the fight to incorporate a multiracial classification at the U.S. census, and the profound alterations it wrought within the American political landscape. The stream so as to add a multiracial class to the 2000 U.S. Census provoked extraordinary debates approximately race. the trouble made for unusual bedfellows. Republicans like condominium Speaker Newt Gingrich and affirmative motion opponent Ward Connerly took up the multiracial reason. Civil rights leaders adversarial the circulation at the premise that it had the aptitude to dilute the census count number of conventional minority teams. The activists themselves—a unfastened confederation of firms, many led by way of the white moms of interracial children—wanted attractiveness. What they acquired used to be the transformation of racial politics in America. Mark a number of is the compelling account of the way this small move sparked a huge switch, and a relocating name to think again the that means of racial id in American life. Kim M. Williams is affiliate Professor of Public coverage in Harvard's Kennedy tuition of presidency, and knowledgeable in racial and ethnic politics and political movements.
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Additional info for Mark One or More: Civil Rights in Multiracial America (The Politics of Race and Ethnicity)
It is yet another thing to look to the state for that recognition. Even from very early on, multiracial advocates sought recognition in one form or another from the local, state, or federal government. To put this in context, we must look back to the outcomes of the civil rights movement, which facilitated the entry of not only blacks but also Latinos, Asian Americans, American Indians, women, and gays and lesbians into the political process. Their entry, in turn, revamped the dynamics of racial and sexual politics and acted as a catalyst for political transformation.
48 “Mulatto” appeared on all subsequent censuses through 1890—at which point “Quadroon” and “Octoroon” made one-time appearances—after which it was dropped in 1900 and reappeared in 1910. After a ‹nal census appearance in 1920, the decades-long search for evidence that mulattos were susceptible to early death was ‹nally abandoned. The fact that white men contributed considerably to the abundance of mulattos in the ‹rst place did not deter white supremacists from exploiting fears of interracial sex via the inveterate trope of white women’s virtue, on one hand, and black men’s bestiality, on the other.
These opportunities were opened up by civil rights outcomes. 86 The American legal system, by the end of the 1960s, had evolved from an attitude of overt hostility toward interracial contact and unions to one in which such contact was at least not regarded as criminal activity. I conducted interviews—often multiple interviews—with every major leader of the multiracial movement. All of these spokespeople conveyed a vision of of‹cial multiracial recognition as related to, but somehow transcending, the civil rights movement.