Download Introduction to Optical Fibers by Allen H. Cherin PDF
By Allen H. Cherin
This publication is particularly important for an advent to makes use of and purposes of fiber optics
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During crystallization, there is a certain rate at which the liquid transforms into the crystal and this is considered to occur through the processes of nucleation and growth (discussed later). 21b. 21: (a) Free energy versus temperature curves for gas, liquid and crystalline states of a substance, illustrating build up of thermodynamic driving force for crystallization with increasing supercooling, (b) Variation with temperature of z;„ and Tout, for crystallization of a fixed volume fraction, (c) Actual variation of Tom with respect to T;„ for a very weakly glass forming liquid.
Space filling polyhedra can be built around each sphere in the assembly, in the manner of building Wigner-Seitz cell in a reciprocal lattice; that is, by erecting perpendicular planes at the mid points of the lines connecting the Chapter 2. The glassy state 33 centre of a given atom to the centres of its nearest neighbours. Such polyhedra are evidently not identical and they are known as Voronoi polyhedra. 25). The interesting feature is that a very large number of faces of Voronoi polyhedra are pentagonal.
In both ccp and hep, close packed layers of spheres are laid one above the other. In face centred ccp (also known as face centred cubic close packing, fee), the layers are stacked one above the other in the sequence ABC ABC... In hep, the stacking is as ABAB... In the layer itself each sphere is coordinated to 6 atoms but in the 3-D structure each sphere is coordinated to 12 others. The voids in the stmcture have regular geometries; they are either tetrahedral or octahedral. They are so designated because when the centres of the voids are connected to the centres of surrounding spheres, they form a tetrahedron or an octahedron.