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By E. Hargreaves
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Regardless of how lengthy i could examine a picture, I shall by no means locate something in it yet what I placed there. it truly is during this incontrovertible fact that we discover the excellence among a picture and a notion. ' - Jean-Paul Sartre"
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Sartre starts by way of criticising philosophical theories of the mind's eye, relatively these of Descartes, Leibniz and Hume, sooner than constructing his imperative thesis. mind's eye doesn't contain the notion of psychological photos in any literal feel, Sartre argues, but finds many of the primary capacities of realization. He then reports mental theories of the mind's eye, together with a desirable dialogue of the paintings of Henri Bergson. Sartre argues that the classical belief is essentially incorrect since it starts through conceiving of the mind's eye as being like conception after which seeks, in useless, to re-establish the variation among the 2. Sartre concludes with a big bankruptcy on Husserl s conception of the mind's eye which, regardless of sharing the failings of past methods, signs a brand new phenomenological method ahead in knowing the imagination.
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Translated by means of Kenneth Williford and David Rudrauf.
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Additional info for In Pursuit of Psychic Change: The Betty Joseph Workshop (New Library of Psychoanalysis (Unnumbered).)
1962b) ‘A theory of thinking’, Second Thoughts: Selected Papers on Psycho-Analysis, New York: Jason Aronson (1967). First published in International Journal of Psychoanalysis, Volume 43, Parts 4–5. —— (1963) Elements of Psycho-Analysis, London: Heinemann, reprinted in paperback, Maresﬁeld Reprints, London: Karnac (1984). —— (1967) ‘Notes on memory and desire’, Melanie Klein Today: Developments in Theory and Practice, Vol. ), London: Routledge (1988) First published in The Psychoanalytic Forum, 2: 272–3, 279–80.
In her clinical material Hughes makes use of Joseph’s ideas in order to illustrate how certain patients use words as actions in the service of primitive projective processes – to intrude into and act on the analyst’s mind, thus subverting the communicative process and substituting enactment for creative thought which might lead to insight. Members of the workshop, like all analysts, need the help of colleagues in order to step back from such enactments and to regain their capacity to think. In Chapter 10, Edna O’Shaughnessy, an early member of the workshop, uses moving material from the analysis some forty years ago of a very ill boy of 12 who, after making some movement towards attachment to the analyst and recognition of need and dependence, retreated into a psychotic identiﬁcation with a cruel, all-powerful Frankenstein ﬁgure, in order to escape from intolerable psychic pain.
The analyst can, for example, become aware of the pressures on him or her to conform to repetitive patterns, and the intense anxiety and hostility aroused if the analyst does not so conform. This in turn diminishes the force with which the archaic versions of the patient’s objects (internal and external) have to be maintained. I believe this is an essential element for achieving psychic change, and it is this approach that is embodied in Joseph’s work. You may recall the quotation from Freud (1937), where he speaks of the therapeutic work constantly swinging backwards and forwards like a pendulum between a piece of id-analysis and a piece of ego-analysis.