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Extra resources for Cracow
Map 3 C1 (5 C5). @ 103, 502. v 3, 6, 8, 10, 18, 40. The fortifications surrounding Wawel Hill date from different periods. Three massive towers – the Thief’s Tower (Złodziejska), Sandomierz and Senator’s Towers (the latter also called Lubranka) are dominant features of the architectural silhouette of the Wawel. They date from the second half of the 15th and early 16th centuries, when the royal residence was rebuilt by the Jagiellonians. New, mainly earth fortifications designed by Jan Pleitner were erected under Władysław IV between 1644 and 1646 on the Castle’s northern terrace.
The Opening of the Sarcophagus of Kazimierz the Great by Jan Matejko An accidental discovery of the remains of the king prompted his second funeral in 1869, which became an event on a national scale, reminiscent of the glorious past. THE ENTRY OF EMPEROR FRANZ JOSEPH IN 1880 Franz Joseph was a popular ruler with the people of Cracow. He was believed to be behind the development of the city and its autonomy. A series of watercolours by Juliusz Kossak (1824–99), such as this one, depicts his stay in Cracow.
Midnight Masses are said and the Zygmunt Bell rings at Wawel. Christmas (Święto Bożego Narodzenia) (25 and 26 Dec) and the day after are public holidays. Masses are celebrated in all churches. New Year’s Eve “Fat Thursday“ (Tłusty czwartek) (last Thu before Lent). Everybody eats doughnuts. The Gazeta w Krakowie, the local supplement to the Gazeta Wyborcza, rates the bakeries to help people choose the best doughnuts in Cracow. Shrovetide (Ostatki), (last Sat and Tue of the Carnival season, before Ash Wednesday).