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By D. Merrick (auth.)
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This will enable oil and gas to be diverted from non-premium uses to premium uses so that the same premium demands can be met with a lower total consumption of these fuels. However, the non-premium markets for oil (bulk combustion) generally use heavy fuel oil whereas the premium markets are for 'light' products (for example, gas oil, kerosine, gasoline and LPG). In order for substitution to be effective, therefore, an associated change in oil-refining practice is required . At present, most of the refineries outside the United States are of the simple 'hydroskimming' type.
The combination of low production costs and History of Coal Combustion and Conversion Technology 37 economies obtained by the increasing scale of transport and refinery operations led to a steady reduction in crude oil and refined product prices in real terms. The availability of relatively low-cost oil generally discouraged the construction of coal liquefaction plant and, since the second World War, commercial-scale installations have been built only in South Africa. The original plant (Sasol 1) at Sasolburg was commissioned in 1955 and produces 250000 tla of liquid products.
2) In practice, stokers are limited to a maximum output of about 30 MW (thermal) whereas pulverised fuel systems can be two orders of magnitude larger than this. During the 1940s and 1950s , there was considerable interest in the development of cyclone furnaces and a number of units were installed . Like pulverised fuel combustion, the coal is burned in a suspension with air, the main differences being that the furnace geometry is arranged to induce a highly turbulent swirling motion in the combustion air and to facilitate the removal of the coal ash as molten slag.