Download Climatic Changes and Water Resources in the Middle East and by H. H. Tzl F. Zereini PDF
By H. H. Tzl F. Zereini
"Climatic switch and Water assets within the heart East and North Africa" is devoted to high-priority issues relating to the effect of weather switch on water assets in a water scarce sector. the topic is defined and mentioned in 3 major chapters and various case stories. the 3 major chapters are (1) Climatic adjustments - assets and results at the water cycle, (2) impression of weather switch on water assets, (3) Water assets and water administration. those chapters are cut up up into additional 26 sections. a complete of sixty four contributors from many nations have made contributions to this e-book. All issues during this publication are complimentary and give a contribution to a complete knowing of the interactions among international weather switch, global water cycle and water assets. A necessary and significant interdisciplinary mix of topics is mixed during this ebook to be able to be of serious curiosity to many scientists.
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Extra resources for Climatic Changes and Water Resources in the Middle East and North Africa
The first and most important source of information stems from SYNOP weather stations, which contribute to the WMO network and deliver data of a relatively high quality standard for several decades now. Unfortunately, most stations in Morocco and the western parts of Algeria are located north of the Atlas Mountains, which leaves a lack of information exactly in the southern region, where the impact of a climate shift is expected to be very strong (Fig. 1). The SYNOP data can be extended by information from individual climate stations operated by regional water management facilities and also by IMPETUS West-Africa, but the quality standard and temporal completeness of these data is not as high as for SYNOPs.
Thus, temperature trends have been calculated for the winter and summer season, respectively. It reveals a stronger warming trend in the summer months than in winter, which means a more „continental“ behaviour with a strong spread between summer and winter conditions. On the other hand, the expected rise of the snowline, estimated roughly from the simulated warming and standard atmosphere conditions is not as strong as suggested by the annual values, since we assume that snowfall mainly occurs in winter months, where the warming is less pronounced than in summer.
In this chapter, results of recent regional climate modelling are presented with respect to the impact of climate change on vegetation and water availability in the three observational regions above defined: the Atlantic (ATL), Mediterranean (MED) and more desert-like climates south of the Atlas (SOA). First, to evaluate the RCM scenarios, the impact on near-surface conditions is shown by means of the Köppen climate classification, then characteristics of modelled rainfall index time series are shown.