Download Cases & Concepts Step 1: Pathophysiology Review by Aaron B. Caughey PDF
By Aaron B. Caughey
Situations & innovations Step 1: Pathophysiology evaluate is helping scientific scholars organize for USMLE Step 1 by way of combining uncomplicated technology issues with scientific facts. operating via 88 scientific instances, the reader earnings event examining instances, learns vintage displays of universal ailments and syndromes, and integrates uncomplicated technology recommendations with scientific purposes. Sections disguise cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hematology, oncology, endocrinology, rheumatology, replica, and neuroscience. circumstances are by means of USMLE-style questions with solutions and rationales. Thumbnail and Key inspiration containers spotlight key evidence. A spouse site bargains totally searchable textual content on-line.
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Extra info for Cases & Concepts Step 1: Pathophysiology Review
Positive blood cultures 2. New murmur, positive echo finding Minor Criteria 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fever Predisposing cardiac condition, IV drug abuse Vascular phenomena (emboli, petechiae) Immunologic findings (Roth spots, Osler nodes, glomerulonephritis) Echo findings consistent with endocarditis but not meeting major criteria Positive blood cultures not meeting major criteria THUMBNAIL: Microbiology of Infectious Endocarditis Causes of Bacteremia Percentage of Cases Microbiology Dental procedures 20 Penicillin-sensitive streptococcus Respiratory tract infection 5 Penicillin-sensitive streptococcus Respiratory/oropharyngeal surgery 20 Penicillin-sensitive streptococcus GI interventions/GI tumors/GI disease 15 Enterococci, Streptococcus bovis, gram-negative bacilli, staphylococcus Urosepsis 10 Enterococci, gram-negative bacilli, S.
SVTs are classified according to whether or not the tachycardia circuit involves the AV node. AV node-dependent tachycardias include AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT), AV re-entrant tachycardia (AVRT), and junctional tachycardia. AV node-independent tachycardias include sinus tachycardia, sinus node re-entry tachycardia, atrial tachycardia, atrial flutter, and atrial fibrillation (AF). An SVT can be classified as AV node dependent if the tachycardia can be terminated by blocking the AV node with a vagal maneuver such as a carotid sinus massage or with use of an AV node-blocking agent (adenosine).
Clinical Presentations All SVTs present with a narrow QRS complex pattern by ECG (unless aberrant conduction of the supraventricular impulse is present). Typical manifestations of SVT include recurrent palpitations, chest fullness, “skipped” beats associated with lightheadedness, or presyncope. It is difficult to clinically differentiate between the different types of SVT based on clinical symptoms. plex tachycardia of 100 to 250 beats/minute. P waves may or may not be present (Fig. 1-19). In general, AVRT presents in adolescents and young adults, while AVNRT is more common in middle-aged adults with no history of structural heart disease.