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By Y. C. Fung
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Additional info for Biodynamics: Circulation
Lee and Talbot (1979) explained Henderson and Johnson 's experiment shown in Fig. 5 :2 as follows : Consider the phenomenon described in Fig. 5 :2. On assuming that the flow velocity U is uniform across the tube between A and B, and that there is initially little flow in the curved section C, and neglecting gravity and viscous effects, the equation of motion for the fluid contained in AB is oU + U oU = ot ox _i op p ox ' (1) where U is the velocity in the x (flow) direction, p is the fluid density , p is the fluid pressure, and t is time.
The relationship between So and L is shown in Fig. 1 : 3. If active tension history Set) is known, then from Eq. (7) we can compute the series element velocity I dl] dt rx'(S + P') dS dt . (12) Using Eqs . (9), (II) and (3), we can obtain the velocity of muscle contraction dl. jdt . If the length history L(t) is known, then from Eqs. (3) and (9) we can compute dnldt, and then by an integration to obtain 1]. Then Eq . (8) yields S, Eq . (6) yields P, and Eq . (I) yields the tension in the muscle.
When the signal from S-A node reaches the A- V nod e, it is delayed for a certain period of time , and then is passed to the ventricles via the atrioventricular bundle, or bundle of His. It is the onl y muscular tissue connecting the atria to the ventricle s. In man it is about 12 mm long before it branches. The dela y of the electric signal transmission at the A -V node allow s optimal ventricula r filling during atrial contraction. It is thi s delay that is responsible for the interval between the P wave and the QRS complex in the electrocardiogram.