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By Alan Graham
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Extra info for Basic Mathematics: Teach Yourself
5 4 × 3 7 3 52 8 Multiplying by 3 tens Note that the 3 is in the tens column so it is actually 3 tens, or 30. The key strategy for multiplying by 30 is to break it into parts. First, multiply by 10 by putting a zero in the units column. 5 4 × 3 7 3 52 8 0 Multiply the unit digit (4) by 3 (4 × 3 = 12). Write down the 2 in the tens column and carry the 1 hundred over to the hundreds column (shown here by a small ‘1’ below the 3). 5 × 3 3 52 12 Multiply the tens digit (5) by 3 (5 × 3 = 15). Write down the 5 in the hundreds column and carry the 1 thousand over to the thousands column (shown here by a ‘1’ in the previously empty thousands column).
For example, suppose you are subtracting 26 from 59 in your head. Here is a useful tip for mental subtraction. Subtract the tens ﬁrst: 59 – 20 = 39. 8. 8 Speed subtraction EXERCISE Use the tip shown above to do these subtractions a 68 – 35 b 98 – 56 c 72 – 55 Set yourself some more subtractions and check your answers with the calculator. PENCIL AND PAPER SUBTRACTION Most children and many adults struggle with performing subtraction on paper. The problem is that it is too easy to simply follow a set of rules with no real understanding of why the method works.
I’m like the boss of March because my birthday is March 12. 5: No additional comments. 7 Using the ﬁgures 3, 9, 4 and 6: a the largest possible four-ﬁgure whole number is 9643. b the smallest possible four-ﬁgure whole number is 3469. 2. The magic number machine 25 SUMMARY In this chapter you were introduced to your calculator and shown its constant facility. You were then shown how to use the calculator constant to count in ones or in any interval, and you were then asked to count your way through our whole number system, based on tens, hundreds and thousands.