Download Atomicity and Quanta by James Jeans PDF
By James Jeans
This can be the complete textual content of James Jeans's Rouse Ball Lecture given in 1925 at Cambridge collage, and surveys the sphere of atomic and subatomic physics within the early days of quantum mechanics, with a quick ancient standpoint on dimension.
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Additional resources for Atomicity and Quanta
Hv. This is a direct consequence of the quantum condition, our equation being the limit of the ordinary photoelectric equation when the energy of ionisation is left out of account. The electron acquires momentum in the direction of its newlyacquired velocity equal to mv or hv Now even if the whole of the absorbed radiation hv had been moving originally in precisely the direction of the velocity v, the momentum of this radiation would only have been hv c a quantity which is exceedingly small in comparison with the momentum acquired by the electron.
When the light of a star passes through a telescope and impresses an image on a photographic plate, this image is not confined to a single molecule or to a close cluster of molecules as it would be if individual quanta left their marks like bullets on a target. An elaborate and extensive diffraction pattern is formed; the intensity of the pattern depends on the number of quanta, but its design depends on the diameter and also on the shape of the object-glass. Moreover the design does not bear any resemblance whatever to the "trial and error" design which is observed on a target battered by bullets.
The picture is an attractive one, but we must be careful not to regard it as anything more than a picture. In actual fact there is abundant evidence that the field of force from a nucleus is not bunched up into a number of tubes which pass to the surrounding electrons. Experiments on the scattering of /3-particles shew that when a free electron enters an atom, the whole force Nejrz from the nucleus is available to act, and does act, upon the wandering electron. Whatever connection we imagine between the nucleus and the electrons which are "bound" to it, there must be no tampering with the full field of force of the nucleus.