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Download Applied optics and optical engineering,Vol.IV by Rudolf Kingslake PDF

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By Rudolf Kingslake

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Extra resources for Applied optics and optical engineering,Vol.IV

Sample text

I_ 1 I $ ,I 10 I IS I 20 I 25 Y Section I 30 Scale nanometers Figure 4-5. Schematic representation of gel surface at the beginning of stage 1. The second stage of drying of our alkoxide-based silica gels starts at the critical (or leatherhard) point (Fig. 4-4 and 4-7). At this point, the meniscus radius is equal to the pore radius and is able to penetrate the bulk. 008 g/hr/cm 2. This stage is consistent with the stage Brinker and Scherer [38] term thefirstfalling rate period. Liquid is driven to the surface by gradients in capillary pressure where it evaporates due to the ambient vapor pressure being lower than inside the pores.

The ratio of the bound water to free water (Fb/FF) will increase since FF decreases as the volume fraction ofpores decreases and F b increases as the total amount of water decreases. The increase in thickness of the bound water layer as drying progresses is accompanied by a progressively increasing vaporization point ofthe remaining amount of free water (Fig. 4-3). Consequently, progressively higher temperatures are necessary to remove the last amounts of free water from the pores. Control ofthe rate of removal of the last fraction of free water is essential to prevent cracking of the gel-silica.

The kinksite in the Michalske and Bunker fracture model [1~ and our ring-opening hydrolysis models both explain why water adsorbs onto a normally hydrophobic Si-O bond. The local environment that the crack tip encounters in the molecular models is basically a strained Si-O bond. Any specific Si-O bond must be part of some ring structure within either bulk amorphous silica or a pore wall of a gel network. The Bell and Dean model of amorphous silica [95] has a number distribution of 4-member, 5-member, and 6-member or greater rings of 48, 73, and 137 respectively.

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