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Download Analogy as Structure and Process: Approaches in Linguistics, by Esa Itkonen PDF

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Additional resources for Analogy as Structure and Process: Approaches in Linguistics, Cognitive Psychology and Philosophy of Science (Human Cognitive Processing, Volume 14)

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Therefore the two must be kept apart. Either Franklin was dealing with observable similarities, which means that he practiced induction, not analogy; or (more likely) the phenomena he was dealing with were observationally dissimilar to the extent that in reality they were being held together by the (implicit) assumption of a common abstract structure, which means that he was practicing analogy, not induction (or ‘analogical inference’ in the traditional sense). 35 (2018-2117) Chapter 1. The concept of analogy We have reached the conclusion that dynamic analogy is, primarily, a subtype of abduction and, secondarily, a subtype of deduction.

Now, one arrives at many-valued logic in two steps: first, 0 and 1 are replaced by the analogous designations ‘lower number’ and ‘higher number’; second, any numbers between 0 and 1, in addition to 0 and 1, are accepted as truth-values. If the truth-value of a formula A is expressed by /A/, then /∼A/ = 1 – /A/. 2. The many-valued definition of conjunction is: /A & B/ = min(/A/, /B/). 2 (and, more generally, the truth-value of a conjunction is always the same as the lowest truth-value of its conjuncts).

Follesdal & Hilpinen 1971: 9). If the modal operators L and M are exemplified by Lp = ‘it is necessary that p’ and Mp = ‘it is possible that p’, while the deontic operators O and P are exemplified by Op = ‘there is an obligation to do p’ and Pp = ‘there is a permission to do p’, then it can be shown that the two pairs of operators behave in the same way. In particular, the basic equivalence of modal logic Lp ≡ ∼M ∼p (‘it is necessary that p iff it is not possible that not-p’) has the deontic counterpart Op ≡ ∼P ∼p (‘there is an obligation to do p iff it is not permitted to do not-p’).

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