Download Advanced Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers for Cu Interconnects by Rene Hubner PDF
By Rene Hubner
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Extra resources for Advanced Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers for Cu Interconnects
1, excess N atoms seem to initiate the N redistribution process. At T = 500 °C, hexagonal Ta2N is formed ΔGTa2 N (Table 3). 7 kJmol-1 at T = 527 °C , the reaction between Ta and TaN proceeds spontaneously. In the case of a TaN/Ta bilayer, this reaction is incomplete and a small fraction of fcc TaN remains in the barrier. For a Ta/TaN/Ta trilayer, the amount of tantalum is sufficient to transform all fcc TaN into Ta2N (Table 3). Both the N redistribution and the subsequent Ta2N formation degrade the barrier integrity.
2. Structure Changes for Cu-Capped Ta-Si-N Single Layers To characterize the thermal stability of ternary Ta-Si-N diffusion barriers between copper and silicon oxide, annealing experiments were performed at T = 600 °C for t = 1 h ... 100 h and detailed investigations were carried out using complementary analytical techniques [237, 238]. It will be shown below that different processes contribute to the degradation of the Ta-Si-N barriers. Besides Ta diffusion to the sample surface and O diffusion into the Cu/barrier interface starting both before barrier crystallization, the formation of various Ta silicides and Ta nitrides is detected.
To distinguish between processes starting at the Cu/barrier interface and at the barrier/SiO2 interface, respectively, annealing experiments for samples without metallization layer are very helpful. Based on the findings of such analyses, the influence of the Cu film on the microstructure changes during heat treatment can be discussed more thoroughly. 1. 1. Reaction Behavior with SiO2 As revealed by XRD measurements, which are summarized in Table 2 and are discussed in more detail in , annealing of a Ta layer at T = 500 °C leads to an increase of the intrinsic compressive stress.